Endoscopy is a medical procedure performed with an instrument called an endoscope, which is inserted inside the body to detect changes in the organs and also to guide certain types of surgery.
There are different types of endoscopes and most consist of thin and hollow tubes (rigid or flexible), equipped with a light source and optical devices at the end, so as to allow the images to be viewed directly on a computer screen, present also different lengths and shapes, and each type of instrument is specially designed for the exploration of a specific part of the body.
It can be inserted through the mouth, anus or urethra. Sometimes, however, it is necessary to make a small cutaneous incision to access the part to be examined (surgical endoscopy).
Often, an endoscope also has a channel that allows the doctor to insert instruments to collect tissue or perform a therapeutic intervention.